My study notes for final. Brief overview of Epictetus, Augustine, and Thomas Aquinas.

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3. Epictetus: persents nice life without afterlife. Stoics: the essential nature of humans is reason. The universe is governed not only by law or god, but by the law of reason. All that occurs, happens in accordance to Natural Law, God. Their two fundamentals are: 1. Whatever happens is the inevitable outcome of the logic of the universe. 2. Whatever happens, is for reason, and therefore is for the best. The stoic philosophy also says to remain uninvolved emotionally in your fate, and you will live an untroubled life. Humans are like actors, who do not pick their roles, only how their attitudes focus on them. Apathy is achieved as a "serenity and happiness" when negative attitudes and fear are avoided. The "actors" are directed by Logos, which is God that is in everything. Logos is reason, which controls and orders all of nature and events. Since sensations are the source of the soul's happiness or misery, and since the good can bring nothing but the soul's happiness, those sensations which conduce to happiness are good.

No free will, free will is a part of God. Apathy - state of complete indifference of pleasure and pain, goal of life. E. brought the idea of social duty. Cosmopolis - view that being human, automatically gives you certain rights, idea that all people are recognized as having equal rights of responsibility. God is the universe, the universe is god - everything is a part of god. God took care of everything, we're his plan. What looks bad to us is good at its end (situation - god's plan - rational - good), there is no evil. Under our control: opinion, judgment and our will.

4. Augustine Characteristics of God: omniscient (all knowing); omnipotent (all powerful); omnibenevolent (all loving). World is made up...