My notes to review for final. The brief overview of Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, and Epicurus.

Essay by 03biankaUniversity, Bachelor's September 2004

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1. Socrates Socratic method of teaching: 1) to convince the other of his ignorance; 2) to make a true search for the answer. But sophists believed that 1) virtue could be taught; 2) there is no common knowledge. Socrates' ethical principle: 1) virtue is knowledge/ wisdom. Virtue - excellence, good at doing smth.

Plato expands "virtue is knowledge" 1) with psychology; parts of the soul, separate from each other: a) reason - desire for knowledge (head); b) spirited part, emotions, love, envy, shame (heart); c) appetites - desire for food, drink, sex (stomach). He bases this principle on the law of non-contradiction; P (any statement) & not p can't both be true. (If chalk is white, it can't be black. 2) talks about classes of society a) rulers don't have family; b) warriors, auxiliaries - carry out the policies and defend the society; c) craftsmen.

For P. ideal person is mostly uses reason and controls his appetites, but is not taken by appetites.

Justice - harmony in the unity, in the soul and society. Justice is based on reason supported by emotions and appetites. Virtues: wisdom, courage, temperance, and justice.

Rulers need to know where the good is - "Divided Line"

Knowledge: 1) infallible, always true; 2) based upon reality; 3) knowledge on one thing relies on things that are unique and unchanging. Opinion: 1) may be true or false because it is 2) based on appearances - may change; 3) rely on things that are many and changing. Good is like a sun: 1) allows sight; 2) creator & sustainer of life in visible world; 3) purpose to life. Soul exists in particular part of our body

2. Aristotle A. believes that happiness is the end and "most people say that happiness includes pleasure that may be good or...